Flora and Fauna

Singapore’s early landscape was mostly primary forest. However, records show that - with settlements on the island and in the early years of our colonial period - 90% of our primary forest had been cleared. and converted for agriculture and plantations.

Nature Conservation

Following Singapore’s independence, our founding fathers placed a strong priority in greening Singapore, to conserve our natural greenery and intensify our urban greenery. Today, even though Singapore is an urbanised city-state, we are recognised as a biophilic City in a Garden, thriving with biodiversity and with greenery enveloping our urban scape. 

To strengthen and guide the conservation of the natural heritage in Singapore, NParks developed and launched the Nature Conservation Masterplan in 2015. The Masterplan systematically consolidates, coordinates, strengthens and intensifies NParks’ biodiversity conservation efforts by integrating various programmes and projects. The Masterplan will support our vision of creating a City in a Garden by enriching biodiversity in our urban environment, and engaging communities to co-create a greener Singapore. The Masterplan has four key thrusts:

  • Conservation of Key Habitats
  • Habitat Enhancement, Restoration, and Species Recovery
  • Applied Research in Conservation Biology and Planning
  • Community Stewardship and Outreach in Nature

Find out more about the Nature Conservation Masterplan here.

In 2017, NParks announced that 500 species have been discovered and rediscovered over the past five years in Singapore by NParks staff, research partners and naturalists. These species include both marine and terrestrial animals, plants including orchids, and insects. These discoveries were made during in-depth surveys, such as the Comprehensive Marine Biodiversity Survey, the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve survey, as well as concerted efforts to survey Singapore’s nature reserves and nature areas during this five-year period.

Singapore’s Biodiversity

Despite being an urbanised city-state, due to our deliberate efforts to conserve and intensify our green spaces, Singapore continues to thrive with biodiversity. There are varied ecosystems found in Singapore – including primary rainforests to mangrove swamps and wetlands, as well as rocky shores, inter-tidal zones and coral reefs, and these areas are the natural habitats for a diverse range of flora and fauna. We have also discovered some species that are endemic to Singapore, such as the Singapore Freshwater Crab (Johora singaporensis) and a new species of ginger (Zingiber singapurense).

Find out more about NParks’ efforts in conserving Singapore’s biodiversity here.